Assignment 1 and 2 – Digital Natives vs. Digital Immigrants

Children nowadays are different, they think different and they interact with each other in a different way than others did decades ago – they’re the digital natives.

Everything is happening online; they read books, articles, news online, they don’t feel the need of holding a physical book in their own hands, smell the pages, everything is happening online. Having a vinyl nowadays is something rare, most of them don’t even know what that is, they are downloading their music or listening to it online; they even meet and talk online, now there is skype for example, you don’t have to get out of the house to go for a drink, you can just sit in front of your computer and that’s it.  – Major aspects of their lives – social interactions, friendships, civic activities – are mediated by digital technologies. And they’ve never known any other way of life. (Born Digital – John Palfrey and Urs Gasser) – so they only know to represent themselves digitally.

The older generations, the digital immigrants, they learned how to use technology because it became a necessity, but they lived in an era where the online messages from now, were letters hand-written or printed and sent and the iPod was a Sony Walkman.

They have to adapt to this new era and most of them are adapting but they continue to hold on to their old ways of doing things. …they always retain, to some degree, their “accent,” that is, their foot in the past. The “digital immigrant accent” can be seen in such things as turning to the Internet for information second rather than first, or in reading the manual for a program rather than assuming that the program itself will teach us to use it. ( Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants – Marc Prensky)

Yet, the digital natives can learn how to use a new software programme in no time, they are creating new worlds on websites and they can rework media, using off-the-shelf computer programs, in ways that would have seemed impossible a few short decades ago. 

But, even though they are faster learners,  more creative and promising much (Digital Natives will move markers and transform industries, education, and global politics. The changes they bring about as they move into the workforce could have an immensely positive effect on the world we live in.) most of them are unaware of the fact that they’re exposing themselves by leaving all kinds of informations online.



Assignment 1 and 2 – further research

So as I decided to focus more on how generations changed along with the evolution of technology – how technology affected us.

It is certainly that we are now in the digital age; our grandparents, the older generations,  they are the digital immigrants and we, (as it is said in Born Digital  by John Palfrey and Urs Gasser) who we were all born after 1980, we’re digital natives.

We’ve got to the point where technology ‘almost’ represents us, who we are, what we do, as everything and everyone is related to it, mostly the young men and women nowadays.  – You see them everywhere. The teenage girl with the ipod, sitting across from you on the subway, frenetically typing messages into her cell phone. The whiz kid summer intern in your office who know what to do when your e-mail client crashes. The eight-year-old who can beat you at any video game on the market – and types faster than you do, too. Even your niece’s newborn baby in London, whom you’ve never meet, but with whom you have bonded nonetheless, owing to the new batch of baby photos that arrive each week.  ( Born Digital  by John Palfrey and Urs Gasser)

Years ago people actually talked to each other, face to face, talking – when/ if they went out for a drink they talked to each other not with their phones. Still, this digital age has both good and bad sides – so in order to find more out I  asked some people (aged between 18 – 22) a couple of questions to get more points of view.

  1. When you were a kid, how was it like?
  2. How were you playing? With what?
  3. Do you think that things changed since then, along with the evolution of technology?
  4. What is your opinion about this digital age?
  5. How do you think technology affected/is affecting the young men and women nowadays?


  • umm, well i tended to be an ultra girly girl, so i had the Barbie’s and Bratz dolls, i even had a Furby but it kind of scared me, and then in school during play time it was just our imaginations – i totally remember when me and my friends would pretend to be witches (like Sabrina the Teenage Witch). and of course, there’s the good old skipping rope. i think it kind of depended on where you were that decided how you played, to be honest.umm, i think there’s no doubt that things have changed since i was little, i mean i’ve seen 2 year olds in pushchairs on buses playing with iPads. i’m undecided if it’s for the better or worse though, so i’m not really sure sure.
  • Being a kid was easy I suppose, no responsibility!I was a bit of a tomboy I used to play with my batman figures! Yeah I do, I mean I never had an iPad or phone at the age of 5/7  I had to wait till I was a lot older! Also it’s changed on the fact that I have more responsibility now too. Erm I believe the digital age is for anyone, and yes my generation has been born into it more (we’re the natives) but I do believe even we’re still adapting to things and I think the way you’re raised has an effect on this too. I think it has made things more accessible for them but I think it has made them lazy, as everything is to hand so long as they have a phone, iPad or laptop and an internet connection.
  • I had a brilliant childhood , i had brilliant friends and loved playing out with them. Back when i was a kid there wasn’t any gadgets so we had to play tig and tag, stuck in the mood, 123 and hopscotch the closet  thing I had to technology was a pair of walkie talkies and a tape recorder where me and my friends would make radio tapes. I think the evolution of technology has reshaped not just childhood but our lives. We don’t spend time socialising rather than doing it online.If you don’t have a smart phone at school you were a ‘tramp’. Even children now have better phones then me and are constantly in the face of it. I think it has it’s up’s but has many more downs, yes technology is becoming more accessible and used more yet what we’re forgetting is how to be human, how to live without a mobile phone or music in our ears. The first thing we do when we wake is check all our social networks, check our texts, we don’t even need to have important meetings in rooms now, there’s so much to be said for the digital age that can benefit us but i think it will take it’s toll and people will become less human by the minuite.
  • I do not remember much of my childhood, only snippets. I remember a few bad arguments between my mum and dad, I remember their relationship building and getting stronger after each one. I remember being out on my front lawn with the other children in the street, having snowball fights in the winter, having water fights in the summer. I remember day trips with my auntie. I remember laughing with my parents and waking up one morning every now and again, and just driving down to wales. Having milkshakes and breakfast, sitting in the sand dunes. Overall I had a great childhood! Packed with so many memories that I find it hard to recollect them allI had a little yellow watering can that went everywhere with me! I used to play shops at my Nan’s using the telephone as a scanner. A lot of what I did required imagination. I didn’t stick to toys, more adventure.Yes I do. However I will contradict myself and also say no. Technology allows children to be creative and interact with others in a ‘different’ way.The digital age is great! There are so many benefits to the introduction of technology I would be here all day talking about them.
  • being a kid was good easy no responsibilities

    playing with toys and eventually had more electronic stuff like a ps2

    things are definitely changed as I have a little brother who is contstantly glued to electronice devices

    I think in some ways it is worse, ie they dont want to go and run around outside but some ways its good as it is setting them up for a life in the digital age

  • When I was a kid, everything was easy and carefree. I would play x-man with my barbie dolls, with my brother, and play around the block outside with the other kids from the neighbourhood. I remember getting a computer at the age of 6-7. In the beginning, it wasn’t such a big deal to me, and I still prefferred playing outside, but things changed in time, and I became very attached to the computer. Especially when internet became available, I remember spending a lot of time online, playing trivia or chatting with friends and penpals. I think the digital age brings along loads of advantages, such as a better and easier access to very valuable information, along with facilitating interhuman communication. However, the technological breakthroughs are also taking a negative toll on communication, because it becomes rather artificial. Of course everybody is affected by the digital age. Expectedly, people’s lives are improved in some aspects. The only downfall that this new digital era has is, in my opinion, the way it wraps people up in technology, it occupies their entire lives, and it becomes their lifestyle instead of a helpful tool.
  • It was good, I used to go to my friends houses and would have friends round to mine for sleepovers quite a lot. I spent a lot of time with my mum which hasn’t really changed but it helped me to learn a lot of things as I grew up.I had a lot of dolls; baby borns, baby annabels, baby benjamins, barbies, bratz dolls, if it was a doll I had it. I didn’t really play outside too much because i’ve never really liked getting dirty.

    Yes, children are given more and more technology to ‘play’ with and I feel that this technology is changing how children play in a way. I saw a child the other day with an iPad and it made me feel a bit sorry for them in a way because they’re being brought up to rely on technology when I still know how to have fun without playing on my phone or games console. I know it makes me sound like an old person but I think children shouldn’t be as exposed to full on technology as early as they are now.

    I think it’s good because we are progressing and evolving more and more everyday which is what we need to do to survive and it means that we can do more with technology. However, I think we need to be careful that we don’t become dependant on it because that could cause us to lose a lot and take away some of the culture that makes people so interesting.

    I think it is changing people in a good way because we are learning more and more but I feel like it is also hurting them because people are becoming dependant on it and there is a massive pressure to have the latest technology no matter what the cost which is causing issues economically and socially.

So most of the people I asked these questions are aged between 18 and 22 years old and the reason why I made this decision is that these people are those who were born at the beginning of the digital age; while they were still playing outside and with actual toys, they still had some “gadgets”, like walkie talkies, tape recorders and eventually by the age of 6-7 a computer or a ps2, which at that time was a big deal – so they experienced loads, they went through this transition to the digital age and they still are as things are still updating. I personally think that somehow they’re at the border of being a digital immigrant and a digital native.

Everyone seemed to have come up with both advantages and disadvantages of the evolution of technology.

  • it has made things accessible for children nowadays, still it has made them lazy
  • it reshaped out lives
  • it made us forget how to be human and how to live without a mobile phone
  • it allows children to be more creative
  • interact with others different
  • brings easier access to valuable information

The Artefact in the Digital Age

* Aura

* Authenticity

* Embodiment

* The Digital repli(can’t)

* The artefact – an object made by a human being , typically one of cultural or historical interest

We began by looking at Walter Benjamin’s essay Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction; We split into pairs and we all had small paragraphs from the essay from which we took only the essential information, the key words – so we got to some conclusions:

* works of art have always been reproducible

* mechanical reproduction of a work of art is something new

* a perfect reproduction it’s still not good enough – it’s not the original – it’s not located in that time and space anymore

* the photograph can reveal items in the original that cannot be seen

* authenticity of a thing is all that is transmissible from its beginning

* aura – something the mechanical can’t reproduce

* reproduction detaches from tradition and history

* we have a desire to bring things closer  –  spatially and humanly

*  aura in relation to art – natural aura and experience

* uniqueness and permanence vs. transitoriness and reproducibility

* uniqueness of a work of art is inseparable from its being embedded in the fabric of tradition

* art is linked closely to ritual

* mechanical reproduction frees art from it’s link with tradition

Art is coming to resemble economic production, albeit at a delayed pace. The movement from contemplation to distraction is creating big changes in how people sense and perceive. Historically, works of art had an ‘aura’ – an appearance of magical or supernatural force arising from their uniqueness. The aura includes a sensory experience of distance between the reader and the work of art.

The aura has disappeared in the modern age because art has become reproducible. Think of the way a work of classic literature can be bought cheaply in paperback, or a painting bought as a poster. Think also of newer forms of art, such as TV shows and adverts. Then compare these to the experience of staring at an original work of art in a gallery, or visiting a unique historic building. This is the difference Benjamin is trying to capture.

– Andrew Robinson (Ceasefire)

* it makes us think – can a photograph be an original?  or is by definition a reproduction of light? -> photography’s first paradigm shift

* What we have lost and what we have gained in our technological advances ?

* this leads us to Marshall McLuhen’s ideas on extensions and amputations  –  An extension occurs when an individual or society makes or uses something in a way that extends the range of the human body and mind in a fashion that is new.  

* so technological extensions have the effect of modifying other extensions

* Ralph Waldo Emerson says:  Society never advances. It recedes as fast on one side as it gains on the other. It undergoes continual changes; it is barbarous, it is civilized, it is christianized, it is rich, it is scientific; but this change is not amelioration. For every thing that is given, something is taken. Society acquires new arts, and loses old instincts.

* so one change leads to another

So we did an ‘experiment’ – if we were to buy a red rose we would buy it for one or two pounds and probably easily sell it for the same price or less, but if that rose were given to us by someone that we care about then the value of that rose becomes higher – it has a sentimental value  – so the original image of it  – because eventually the rose will die.

The internet is a copy machine. At its most foundational level, it copies every action, every character, every thought we make while we ride upon it. In order to send a message from one corner of the internet to another, the protocols of communication demand that the whole message be copied along the way several times.

– Kevin Kelly

 * immediacy, personalisation, interpretation, authenticity, accessibility, embodiment, patronage, findability

*  Embodiment – At its core the digital copy is without a body. You can take a free copy of a work and throw it on a screen. But perhaps you’d like to see it in hi-res on a huge screen? Maybe in 3D? PDFs are fine, but sometimes it is delicious to have the same words printed on bright white cottony paper, bound in leather. Feels so good. What about dwelling in your favorite (free) game with 35 others in the same room? There is no end to greater embodiment.

* a physical object occupies a physical place

*  in the digital age  we look at it’s flaws  – it’s expensive – takes time to produce – cannot be updated


A book has weight, size, thickness and tactile qualities, qualities which are handled by the hand, as it’s optical form is handled by eye.

 The printed page, the bound (codex) book with its title and author page, looks authoritative; it can be described as embodying or containing wisdom in a way that the unstable electronic text does not.

– Brigitte Frase

* break the flow of images – of absorbing the images

* We looked at Jeff Wall’s light box installations

* this exhibition can’t be put into a book or online

* when we look at a book,  at an exhibition we take time, spend time on absorbing it, fact that doesn’t apply when we look at something online

* when you see a reproduction you don’t have that aura of being there

* as artists we have to think at the way of how are we presenting our work – this leads us back to the horizons ( our presentation choices must reinforce the communication of our message of theme) – we can only control our horizon – we can’t control our viewers horizons

What does digital do well?

* accessibility, cost, distribution, information, layers, networks

The digital repli(can’t)

* authenticity, embodiment, permanence, provenance, history, tradition

Sketchbook Task E – Composites

This task relates to the Chimera and Composites lecture – we had to take a picture of each person in our group and then create a portrait. It was up to us how many photos we chose so I choose to use the photos with Stephen, Elena, Gemma and Becka.


I used Stephen’s body, Becka’s scarf, Elena’s  glasses and eyes and Gemma’s eyebrows.  For editing I used quick selecting tool for selecting the parts I needed from the orders and copy and paste them on Stephens photo and the used the opacity to see what to erase.

So this is the final photo, it isn’t something incredible as my photoshop skills really need to be improved (as you can see that I put the glasses on Stephens face, but with no frame) , but the point is that I see the link between this task and the composites.

Sketchbook Task D – Google’s All Seeing Eye

* During the New Cameras lecture we’ve been introduced to three different cameras: The Lytro camera, The Red Camera and Google Street View.

* In response to that lecture we’ve been given a task;  to go to a place we had never been before and make a series of ten images that best represent our theme, but the method of travel is a little bit different than usually – we had to use Google Street View both as a travel method and as a camera.

* I went to Vancouver, Canada and looked into Immigration.


Christmas Task – My images

Also for the Christmas task we were told to make images everyday, to pay attention to the world we are presented with and to think about what interests us, what details do we pick up on?

I look more into the the details, so considering the fact that it was the Christmas holiday I choose to show that everything it’s about lights – imagine a Christmas without lights.

Christmas Task – Paolo Patrizi vs. Mishka Henner

* For this task we were first told to revisit the lecture What is a Photograph? in order to remind ourselves of what we’ve learned last term and what our work should include.

* We also had to look at  Paolo Patrizi’s and Mishka Henner’s work  “Migration Sex Workers” and “No Mans Land” and discuss our thoughts.


 Mishka Henner – ‘No Man’s Land’

‘No Man’s Land’ is a selection of photos taken with Google Street View and captures the prostitutes on the corners of the roads in Italy.

* usually Google Street View is used as a map, for finding places and when I saw that these photos were taken with GSV, I  was amazed, because I’ve never thought of the possibility of making photography in such way.

* Henner’s images are showing the women on the side of  the country roads waiting for their customers. I think that the fact that their faces are blurred is showing how men really see them, not as human beings, but as objects that they pay for.

Paolo Patrizi – Migration

* Migration it’s project about women from Nigeria, who are traveling to Italy to work in the sex trade. These migrant women are choosing to sell their bodies for money and the images are showing the indescribable conditions that these women live in.

* Henner’s work is impressive mostly because he discovered/’built’ a project in GSV, something that most of us use as a daily tool, but Patrizi’s work is the true documentation of what is happening, because his images are not only images of women on the side of the road, but images of women that work in the sex trade and of the conditions that they live and work in. I feel that this project it is actually documenting the life of these women; not all the images are aesthetically pleasing, it is not something that is easy to look at, but it is showing the truth.

* so the point of this article is to see which one of these two is better

* Alan Chin: “Google Street Views is a navigational tool, an educational resource, and sure, it can reveal a lot about a place and a scene at a given moment in time. But if you, the artist, are really so interested, then go there and take some pictures yourself. This is about as interesting as cutting out adverts from magazines that have some connection and then presenting your edit as a work of art. […]” 

* I personally agree with him, because  as the title of the article says Google Street View vs. Boots on the Ground, Boots on the Ground ‘wins’, it is a better project, better work; it is a truth and we can see that the photographer was actually interested in what was happening there, he did the research to find it all out and he did documented the life of this women and passed the information through his images and ‘practically’ took us there in those unbelievable conditions.